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Overview of Exchange 2010 Server Roles

server role is a unit that logically groups the required features and components needed to perform a specific function in the messaging environment. The requirement of a server role is that it is a server that could be run as an atomic unit of scalability. A server role is composed of a group of features.
Server roles, the primary unit of deployment, enable administrators to easily choose which features are installed on an Exchange server. Logically grouping features in server roles offers the following advantages:
• Reduces attack surface on an Exchange server.
• Allows you to install and configure an Exchange server the way you intend to use it.
• Offers the ability to fully customize a server to support your business goals and needs.
The following figure illustrates a domain with each server role deployed.

Exchange 2010 includes the following server roles:
• Mailbox Server This server hosts mailboxes and public folders. For more information about the Exchange 2010 Mailbox server role, see Overview of the Mailbox Server Role.
• Client Access Server This is the server that hosts the client protocols, such as Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4), Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS), Outlook Anywhere, Availability service, and Autodiscover service. The Client Access Server also hosts Web services. For more information about the Exchange 2010 Client Access server role, see Client Access.
• Unified Messaging Server This is the server that connects a Private Branch eXchange (PBX) system to Exchange 2010. For more information about the Exchange 2010 Unified Messaging server role, see Unified Messaging.
• Hub Transport Server This is the mail routing server that routes mail within the Exchange organization. For more information about the Exchange 2010 Hub Transport server role, see Transport and Overview of the Hub Transport Server Role.
• Edge Transport Server This is the mail routing server that typically sits at the perimeter of the topology and routes mail in to and out of the Exchange organization. For more information about the Exchange 2010 Edge Transport server role, see Transport and Overview of the Edge Transport Server Role.

Before installing SP1 for Exchange 2010, there are several updates and hot fixes that need to be installed first. An important thing to note is that all the Unified Messaging language packs other than US English (en-US) need to be uninstalled before upgrading the Unified Messaging server role. I have split these up then up by server role:

Hub Transport Role Prerequisites:

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 979099
Microsoft Office 2010 Filter Packs

Client Access Role Prerequisites:

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 982867 *requires a restart
Microsoft Knowledge Base article 979744 *requires a restart
Microsoft Knowledge Base article 983440 *requires a restart
Microsoft Knowledge Base article 977020
Knowledge Base article 979099

Mailbox Role Prerequisites:

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 979099
Microsoft Office 2010 Filter Packs

Unified Messaging Role Prerequisites:

Microsoft Unified Communications Managed API, Core Runtime 64-bit
Microsoft Server Speech Platform Runtime 64-bit
Microsoft Knowledge Base article 979099

Upgrade from Exchange 2010 RTM to Exchange 2010 SP1

You can use the Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 1 (SP1) Setup wizard to perform an upgrade from the release to manufacturing (RTM) version of Exchange 2010 to Exchange 2010 SP1. If you have one or more Exchange 2010 server roles or the Exchange management tools installed, you can upgrade to Exchange 2010 SP1.
You should upgrade your Exchange 2010 server roles in the following order:
1. Client Access
2. Hub Transport
3. Unified Messaging
4. Mailbox

If your organization uses a load balanced array of Client Access servers, you must upgrade all Client Access servers in that array to Exchange 2010 SP1 at the same time. Exchange 2010 RTM and Exchange 2010 SP1 can’t coexist within the same load balanced array.
The Edge Transport server role can be upgraded at any time. However, we recommend upgrading the Edge Transport server role either before or after all other server roles are upgraded.
Caution:
After you upgrade to Exchange 2010 SP1, you can’t uninstall the service pack to revert to Exchange 2010 RTM. If you uninstall Exchange 2010 SP1, you remove Exchange from the server.

Permissions
To perform the following procedures, the account you use must be a member of the Delegated Setup management role group or the Organization Management management role group.
To upgrade an Exchange 2010 RTM server that has the Edge Transport server role installed to Exchange 2010 SP1, the account you use must be a member of the local Administrators group on that computer.
To upgrade a computer that has only the Exchange management tools installed, you must log on using an account that’s a member of the local Administrators group on that computer.
If you haven’t yet prepared the schema for Exchange 2010 SP1, the account you use to upgrade the server must be a member of the Schema Admins group and the Enterprise Admins group. For more information, see Prepare Active Directory and Domains.
Upgrade database availability group members
When upgrading a database availability group (DAG) member to Exchange 2010 SP1, you need to consider and plan for some specific issues. Before upgrading any DAG members to Exchange 2010 SP1, consider the following.
• Upgrade only passive servers before applying Exchange 2010 SP1 to a DAG member, move all active mailbox database copies off the server to be upgraded and configure the server to be blocked from activation. If the server to be upgraded currently holds the primary Active Manager role, move the role to another DAG member prior to performing the upgrade. You can determine which DAG member holds the primary Active Manager role by running Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup  -Status | Format-List PrimaryActiveManager.
• Place server in maintenance mode Before applying Exchange 2010 SP1 to any DAG member, you may want to adjust monitoring applications that are in use so that the server doesn’t generate alerts or alarms during the upgrade. For example, if you’re using Microsoft System Center Operations Manager 2007 to monitor your DAG members, you should put the DAG member to be upgraded in maintenance mode prior to performing the upgrade.
• Stop any processes that might interfere with the upgrade Stop any scheduled tasks or other processes running on the DAG member or within that DAG that could adversely affect the DAG member being upgraded or the upgrade process.
• Verify the DAG is healthy before applying Exchange 2010 SP1 to any DAG member, we recommend that you verify the health of the DAG and its mailbox database copies. A healthy DAG will pass MAPI connectivity tests to all active databases in the DAG, will have mailbox database copies with a copy queue length and replay queue length that’s very low, if not 0, as well as a copy status and content index state of Healthy.
• Be aware of other implications of the upgrade A DAG member running the RTM version of Exchange 2010 can move its active databases to a DAG member running Exchange 2010 SP1, but not the reverse. After a DAG member has been upgraded to Exchange 2010 SP1, its active database copies can’t be moved to another DAG member running the RTM version.
Run the following scripts and commands on the DAG member being upgraded to prepare for upgrading to Exchange 2010 SP1.
• Verify the health and status of the DAG by saving the following commands as a Windows PowerShell script (.ps1) file.

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(Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Identity (Get-MailboxServer -Identity $env:computername).DatabaseAvailabilityGroup).Servers | Test-MapiConnectivity | Sort Database | Format-Table -AutoSize
Get-MailboxDatabase | Sort Name | Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus | Format-Table -AutoSize
function CopyCount 
{
$DatabaseList = Get-MailboxDatabase | Sort Name
$DatabaseList | % {
$Results = $_ | Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus
$Good = $Results | where { ($_.Status -eq “Mounted”) -or ($_.Status -eq “Healthy”) }$_ | add-member NoteProperty “CopiesTotal” $Results.Count $_ | add-member NoteProperty “CopiesFailed” ($Results.Count-$Good.Count)}
$DatabaseList | sort copiesfailed -Descending | ft name,copiesTotal,copiesFailed -AutoSize}
CopyCount
• Perform a server switchover by running the following command.

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Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase -Server 
• Prevent the DAG member from becoming a failover target by running the following command.

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Set-MailboxServer -DatabaseCopyAutoActivationPolicy:Blocked
• If necessary, move the primary Active Manager role to another DAG member by running the following command.

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Cluster group “cluster group” /move
• Upgrade to Exchange 2010 SP1. For details, see “Upgrade from Exchange 2010 RTM to Exchange 2010 SP1” later in this topic.
• Enable the upgraded DAG member to become a failover target by running the following command.

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Set-MailboxServer -DatabaseCopyAutoActivationPolicy:Value
Where Value is either IntrasiteOnly or Unrestricted.
• Repeat steps 1–6 on each DAG member until all DAG members have been upgraded to SP1.

Upgrade from Exchange 2010 RTM to Exchange 2010 SP1
When upgrading from Exchange 2010 RTM to Exchange 2010 SP1 on multiple Exchange 2010 servers within an organization, we recommend that you first upgrade your Client Access servers. In an organization that has multiple Active Directory sites that use multiple Client Access servers in a proxy situation, you must upgrade the Internet-facing Client Access servers before upgrading Client Access servers that aren’t Internet-facing. Then, we recommend you install the Hub Transport, Unified Messaging, and Mailbox server roles.
The Edge Transport server role can be upgraded at any time. However, we recommend upgrading the Edge Transport server role either before or after all other server roles are upgraded.
1. Insert the Exchange 2010 SP1 DVD into the DVD drive. When the AutoPlay dialog box appears, click Run Setup.exe under Install or run program. If the AutoPlay dialog box doesn’t appear, navigate to the root of the DVD and double-click Setup.exe. Alternatively, browse to the location of your Exchange 2010 installation files and double-click Setup.exe.
2. On the Start page, click Install Microsoft Exchange Server Upgrade to begin the installation.
Important:
Make sure that you’ve completed all the required steps described on the Start page before you begin your installation. If you haven’t already installed the components discussed on the Start page, Setup provides links to the appropriate sites where you can download the components. For more information about Windows PowerShell installation, see Install Windows Management Framework.

Important:
If you’re installing Exchange 2010 on Windows Server 2008 R2, don’t use the downloadable .NET Framework package. Instead, use Server Manager in Windows Server 2008 R2 or run ServerManagerCmd -i NET-Framework.
3. The Introduction page begins the process of installing Exchange into your organization. It will guide you through the installation. Click Next to continue.
4. On the License Agreement page, review the software license terms. If you agree to the terms, select I accept the terms in the license agreement, and then click Next.
5. On the Readiness Checks page, view the status to determine if the organization and server role prerequisite checks completed successfully. If they haven’t completed successfully, you must resolve any reported errors before you can install Exchange 2010. You don’t need to exit Setup when resolving some of the prerequisite errors. After resolving a reported error, click Retry to run the prerequisite check. Be sure to also review any warnings reported. If all readiness checks have completed successfully, click Upgrade to install Exchange 2010 SP1.
6. On the Completion page, click Finish.
Use unattended setup to upgrade from Exchange 2010 RTM to Exchange 2010 SP1
1. Insert the Exchange 2010 SP1 DVD into the DVD drive, and then at the command prompt, navigate to the DVD drive or navigate to the network location of the Exchange 2010 installation files.
2. At the command prompt, run the following command.

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Setup.com /M:Upgrade /InstallWindowsComponents

Perform a Server Switchover
Applies to: Exchange Server 2010 SP1

A server switchover is a task that you perform to move all active mailbox database copies from their current Mailbox server to one or more other Mailbox servers in a database availability group (DAG). This task is performed as part of preparation for a scheduled outage for the current Mailbox server.
Use the EMC to perform a server switchover
You need to be assigned permissions before you can perform this procedure. To see what permissions you need, see the”Mailbox database copies” entry in the High Availability Permissions topic.
1. In the console tree, navigate to Server Configuration > Mailbox.
2. In the result pane, select the Mailbox server you want.
3. In the action pane, select Switchover Server.
4. In the Switchover server database copies dialog box, do one of the following:
a. Accept the default setting of Automatically choose a target server (in which case, the system automatically selects the best Mailbox server for each database being switched over), and then click OK.
b. Click Use the specified server as the target for switchover, click Browse to select a Mailbox server, and then click OK.
Use the Shell to perform a server switchover
You need to be assigned permissions before you can perform this procedure. To see what permissions you need, see the”Mailbox database copies” entry in the High Availability Permissions topic.
This example performs a server switchover for the server MBX1. The system automatically selects the best Mailbox server for each active database on MBX1.

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Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase -Server MBX1
This example performs a server switchover of the Mailbox server MBX4. When the command completes, MBX5 hosts the active copy of the databases that were previously active on MBX4. Because the MountDialOverride parameter isn’t specified, MBX5 mounts the databases using a database auto mount dial setting of Lossless.

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Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase -Server MBX4 -ActivateOnServer MBX5

Update 2/11/2011: Windows 2008 R2 SP1 includes the required hotfixes listed in this table — 979744, 983440, 979099, 982867 and 977020. If you’re installing Exchange 2010 SP1 on a server running Windows 2008 R2 SP1, you don’t need to install these hotfixes separately

4. The Missing Exchange Management Shell Shortcut
Some customers have reported that after upgrading an Exchange Server 2010 server to Exchange 2010 SP1, the Exchange Management Shell shortcut is missing from program options. Additionally, the .ps1 script files associated with the EMS may also be missing.
We’re actively investigating this issue. Meanwhile, here’s a workaround:
1. Verify that the following files are present in the %ExchangeInstallPath%\bin directory:
 – CommonConnectFunctions.ps1
 – CommonConnectFunctions.strings.psd1
 – Connect-ExchangeServer-help.xml
 – ConnectFunctions.ps1
 – ConnectFunctions.strings.psd1
 – RemoteExchange.ps1
 – RemoteExchange.strings.psd1
NOTE: If these files are missing, you can copy the files from the Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 1 installation media to the %ExchangeInstallPath%\bin directory. These files are present in the \setup\serverroles\common folder.
2. Click Start -> AdmiinistrativeTools ->, right-click Windows PowerShell Modules, select Send to -> Desktop (as shortcut)
3. Go to the Properties of the shortcut and on Target replace the path to C:\WINDOWS\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -noexit -command “. ‘C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\bin\RemoteExchange.ps1’; Connect-ExchangeServer -auto”
Note: if the Exchange installation folder or drive name is different than the default, you need to change the path accordingly.
5. Upgrading Edge Transport on Forefront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) and Forefront Protection for Exchange 2010
If you upgrade a server with the Edge Transport server role running with ForeFront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) and ForeFront Protection for Exchange (FPE) enabled for SMTP protection, the ForeFront TMG Managed Control Service may fail to start and E-mail policy configuration settings cannot be applied.
The TMG team is working on this issue. See Problems when installing Exchange 2010 Service Pack 1 on a TMG configured for Mail protection on the ForeFront TMG (ISA) Team Blog. Exchange 2010 SP1 Release Notes has been updated with the above information.
The ForeFront TMG product team has released a software update to address this issue. See Software Update 1 for Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) 2010 Service Pack 1 now available for download.
6. Static Address Book Service Port Configuration Changes
The location for setting the port the address book service should use has changed in SP1. In Exchange 2010 RTM you had to edit the Microsoft.exchange.addressbook.service.exe.config to configure the service port. In SP1 you must use the following registry key:
Path: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\MSExchangeAB\Parameters
Value name: RpcTcpPort
Type: REG_SZ (String)

When you apply SP1 to a machine where you had previously configured a static port by editing the Microsoft.exchange.addressbook.service.exe.config file, the upgrade process will not carry forward your static port assignments. Following a restart, the Address Book Service will revert to using a dynamic port instead of a static port specified in the config file. This may cause interruptions in service.
As with all upgrades where servers are in load balanced pools, we recommend you perform a rolling upgrade — removing servers from the pool, updating them and then moving the pool to the newly upgraded machines. Alternatively, we recommend that you upgrade an array of servers by draining connections from any one machine before you upgrade it.
There are times when these approaches may not be possible. You can maintain your static port configuration, and have it take effect the moment the address book service starts for the first time following the application of the service pack, by creating the registry key BEFORE you apply SP1 to your server. The registry key has no impact pre SP1, and so by configuring it before you apply the Service Pack you can avoid the need to make changes to set the port post install, and avoid any service interruptions.
7. iPhone, OWA Premium and POP3 & IMAP4 issues due to invalid accepted domain
After applying E2010 SP1:
1. iPhone users may not be able to view the content of incoming messages in their Inboxes, and when they try to open a message, they get an error saying:
This message has not been downloaded from the server.
Admins may see the following event logged in the Application Event Log on Exchange 2010 CAS Server:
Watson report about to be sent for process id: 1234, with parameters: E12, c-RTL-AMD64, 14.01.0218.011, AirSync, MSExchange ActiveSync, Microsoft.Exchange.Data.Storage.InboundConversionOptions.CheckImceaDomain, UnexpectedCondition:ArgumentException, 4321, 14.01.0218.015.
2. OWA Premium users may not be able to reply or forward a message. They may see the following error in OWA:
An unexpected error occurred and your request couldn’t be handled. Exception type: System.ArgumentException, Exception message: imceaDomain must be a valid domain name.
3. POP3 & IMAP4 users may also not be able to retrieve incoming mail and Admins will see the following event logged in Event Log:
ERR Server Unavailable. 21; RpcC=6; Excpt=imceaDomain must be a valid domain name.
Resolution
Please run the following command under Exchange Management Shell and verify that there is one domain marked as ‘Default’ and it’s DomainName & Name values are valid domain names. We were able to reproduce the issue by setting a domain name with a space in it, like “aa bb”
Get-AcceptedDomain | fl
If you also have an invalid domain name there (for example, a domain name with a space in it), then removing the space and restarting the server will fix the EAS (iPhone), OWA, POP3 & IMAP4 issues as mentioned above.
Command to run under EMS would be:
Set-AcceptedDomain –Identity -Name “ValidSMTPDomainName”
Thes examples update the Name parameter of the “My Company” and “ABC Local” accepted domains (the space is removed from both):
Set-AcceptedDomain –Identity “My Company” –Name “MyCompany.Com”
Set-AcceptedDomain –Identity “ABC Local” –Name “ABC.Local”
8. Error when adding or removing a mailbox database copy
If a server running Exchange 2010 RTM (or Exchange 2010 SP1 Beta) is upgraded to Exchange 2010 SP1, administrators may experience an error when using the Add-MailboxdDatabaseCopy or Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlets to add or remove DAG members.
When you try to add a DAG member, you may see the following error:
Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy DAG-DB0 -MailboxServer DAG-2
The result:
WARNING: An unexpected error has occurred and a Watson dump is being generated: Registry key has subkeys and recursive removes are not supported by this method.

Registry key has subkeys and recursive removes are not supported by this method.
+ CategoryInfo : NotSpecified: (:) [Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy], InvalidOperationException 
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : System.InvalidOperationException,Microsoft.Exchange.Management.SystemConfigurationTasks.
AddMailboxDatabaseCopy
The command is not successful in adding the copy or updating Active Directory to show the copy was added. This happens due to presence of the DumpsterInfo registry key.
Workaround: Delete the DumpsterInfo key, as shown below.
1. Identify the GUID of the database that is being added using this command:
Get-MailboxDatabase DAG-DB0 | fl name,GUID
The result:
Name : DAG-DB0 
Guid : 8d3a9778-851c-40a4-91af-65a2c487b4cc
2. On the server specified in the add command, using the database GUID identified, remove the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\ExchangeServer\v14\Replay\State\\DumpsterInfo
The GUID identified in this case is 8d3a9778-851c-40a4-91af-65a2c487b4cc. With this information you can now export and delete the DumpsterInfo key on the server where you are attempting to add the mailbox database copy. This can be easily done using the registry editor, but if you have more than a handful of DAG members, this is best automated using the Shell.
This example removes the DumpsterInfo key from the 8d3a9778-851c-40a4-91af-65a2c487b4cc key:
Remove-Item HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\ExchangeServer\V14\Replay\State\8d3a9778-851c-40a4-91af-65a2c487b4cc\DumpsterInfo
To automate this across all servers in your organization, use the DeleteDumpsterRegKey.ps1 script.
File: deletedumpsterregkey_ps1.txt
Description: The DeleteDumpsterRegkey.ps1 script can be used to delete the offending DumpsterInfo registry keys that can cause this problem on all Exchange 2010 SP1 Mailbox servers in the organization. Rename the file to DeleteDumpsterRegkey.ps1 (remove the .txt extension).

Updates:
• 9/7/2010: Updated list of files for the missing Exchange Management Shell shortcut issue
• 9/15/2010: Udpated pre-reqs table:
– 982867 required on Windows 2008 SP2
– 983440 not required on Windows 2008 SP2
– 977020 required on Windows 2008 R2 
• 9/21/2010: Added link to Software Update 1 for ForeFront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) 2010 Service Pack 1
– Replaced “Request from CSS…” verbiage for KB 979917 with link to KB 979917 download on MSDN 
• 9/22/2010: Updated correct default Exchange install path (highlighted) in ‘The Missing Exchange Management Shell Shortcut” section: C:\WINDOWS\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -noexit -command “. ‘C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\bin\RemoteExchange.ps1’; Connect-ExchangeServer -auto”

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